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The main language areas in Iberia, circa BC. The Romanization of Hispania took several centuries. The Roman provinces that covered present-day Portugal were Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north.
Numerous Roman sites are scattered around present-day Portugal. Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theatres, and layman's homes are preserved throughout the country. Coins, sarcophagi, and ceramics are also numerous.
Following the fall of Rome, the Kingdom of the Suebi and the Visigothic Kingdom controlled the territory between the 5th and 7th centuries. Viriatus has long been hailed as the first truly heroic figure in proto-Portuguese history.
Nonetheless, he was responsible for raids into the more settled Romanized parts of Southern Portugal and Lusitania that involved the victimization of the inhabitants. In AD, the Constitutio Antoniniana gave Roman citizenship to all free subjects of the empire and, at the end of the century, the emperor Diocletian founded the province of Gallaeciawhich included modern-day northern Portugalwith its capital at Bracara Augusta now Braga.
Business transactions were facilitated by coinage and the construction of an extensive road network, bridges and aqueducts, such as Trajan's bridge in Aquae Flaviae now Chaves. Soldiers often served in different regions and eventually settled far from their birthplace, while the development of mining attracted migration into the mining areas.
Vulgar Latin the basis of the Portuguese language became the dominant language of the region, and Christianity spread throughout Lusitania from the third century.
Germanic invasions[ edit ] Iberian Peninsula c. Suebi territory with its capital in Braga blue ; Visigothic territory with its capital in Toledo green Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions inprior to the Muslim conquest.
Inwith the decline of the Roman Empirethe Iberian Peninsula was occupied by Germanic tribes that the Romans referred to as barbarians.
An important group was made up of the Suebi and Vandals in Gallaeciawho founded a Suebi Kingdom with its capital in Braga.
They came to dominate Aeminium Coimbra as well, and there were Visigoths to the south.
As elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages. Although the Suebi and Visigoths were initially followers of Arianism and Priscillianismthey adopted Catholicism from the local inhabitants.
Martin of Braga was a particularly influential evangelist at this time. Fromconflict between the Suebi and Visigoths increased. From that time, the Iberian Peninsula was unified under a Visigothic Kingdom. It was also under the Visigoths that the Church began to play a very important part within the state.
Since the Visigoths did not learn Latin from the local people, they had to rely on Catholic bishops to continue the Roman system of governance. The laws established during the Visigothic monarchy were thus made by councils of bishops, and the clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class.
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid Ithe Berber commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on 30 Aprilostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war.
After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on 19 JulyTariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by the Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiyabrought most of the Visigothic kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign.Portuguese discovery of australia essay Portuguese discovery of australia essay parents sacrifice essay essay zoology story essay on dred scott decision and contrast essay assignment 5 paragraph essay on what it means to be an american need help writing history essay sisamuth samedayessay vcu crna application essay short essay on nature.
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