Origins and History A name synonymous with the Italian Renaissance, the Medici family arose from humble origins to rule Florence, sponsor artists, and dominate Florentine culture for nearly years. Their political contributions to Florence are rivaled if not exceeded by their patronage of a few of the Renaissance's greatest artists, including Sandro Botticelli and Michelangelo. The city of Florence, like a number of Italian city-states, came to power through conquest and commerce.
The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in addrove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers. The isolated communitiesliterally islands of Veneto- Byzantine civilization, became part of the exarchate of Ravenna when it was created in When the mainland Byzantine city of Oderzo fell to the Lombards inpolitical authority was shifted to one of the islands in the Venetian lagoon.
The first elected dogeor dukewas Orso, chosen in an anti-Byzantine military declaration inbut he was succeeded by Byzantine officials until aboutwhen the exarchate of Ravenna came to an end. There followed decades of internal political strife among various settlements vying for supremacy and between pro- and anti-Byzantine factions; also involved were attempts by church authorities to acquire temporal influence.
Finally the doge Obelerio and his brother Beato formed an alliance with the Franks of Italy and placed Venice under the authority of the Italian king Pippin died in order to free themselves from Byzantine control. Pro-Byzantine reaction to this event under the doges of the Parteciaco family led to the transfer of the seat of government to the Rialto group of islands, by then the centre for exiles in the factional fighting.
Though a Franco-Byzantine treaty of guaranteed to Venice political and juridical independence from the rule of the Western Empire, it did not confirm any effective dependence on the Byzantine Empireand by — the doge was negotiating international agreements in his own name.
The unusual legal and political position of the small independent duchy, situated in territorial isolation between two great empires, contributed greatly to its function as a trading intermediary.
A long succession of serious disputes between leading families concerning the office of doge did not halt the rapid development of trade. Increase in private wealth led to the gradual achievement of internal stability by creating a broader ruling class that was capable of putting a limit to the power of the doge.
Gradually a national consciousness developed. Beginning in the late 9th century, the doges were chosen by popular election, though the right was frequently abused during times of civil strife.
Finally the group of Rialto islands was solemnly transformed into the city of Venice civitas Venetiarum. The new order The final collapse of family faction rule led to a change in the system of government, inaugurated by Doge Domenico Flabanico — He restored to the people the sovereign right to elect the doge, but the term populus was in practice restricted to the residents of the Rialto and, more narrowly, to a select group of nobles.
A new church was built for St. Mark, symbol of the Venetian spirit, under Doge Domenico Contarini —70an energetic defender of the religious independence of the duchy. Growth of trade and power In the conflict between papacy and empire, Contarini and his successors remained neutral despite the complaints of Pope Gregory VIIwhile safeguarding Venetian economic interests in the Adriatic when the conflict began to be reflected on the Dalmatian coast.
But the greatest danger to Venetian interests was the 11th-century Norman expansion under Robert Guiscard, which threatened to cut Venetian communications to the south.
Relations with the Byzantine Empire In gratitude for Venetian aid against the Normans, the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus granted Venice unrestricted trade throughout the Byzantine Empire, with no customs dues, a privilege that marked the beginning of Venetian activity in the East The Adriatic was not yet secured, however; Dalmatian ports were threatened by the Hungarians and Slavs, with whom it was difficult to come to agreement.
Toward the end of the 11th century, the Crusades focused the newly awakened trading interests of the West on the Mediterranean. At first Venice was chiefly concerned with gaining control of the European trading ports of the Byzantine Empire, leaving to private interests the commercial opportunities in Syria and Asia Minor.
Although they had been the first to win trade concessions and a commercial quarter in Constantinoplethe Venetians antagonized the Byzantines by their arrogance and lawlessness as well as by their superior enterprise.
In helping the emperor Manuel I Comnenus drive the Normans out of Corfu —49they offended him by their aggressive behaviour. Soon the mutual dislike between Venetians and Byzantines ripened into hatred. The emperor encouraged merchants from the Italian republics of Genoa and Pisa to compete in Byzantine markets, and the Venetians responded by destroying the establishments of their rivals.
Into maintain order in his dominions, the emperor arrested all Venetian residents in Constantinople and the provinces and confiscated their goods.
Relations were patched up in and again inbut the Venetians remained embittered. The commune All this time the expansion of Venice along the borders of the lagoon and across the Adriatic on the Dalmatian coast not only enriched its patrimony but also created an awareness of its own political power.The BBC Television Shakespeare is a series of British television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare, created by Cedric Messina and broadcast by BBC benjaminpohle.comitted in the UK from 3 December to 27 April , the series spanned seven seasons and thirty-seven episodes.
Development began in when Messina saw that the grounds of Glamis Castle would make a . setting (place) · Venice and Belmont, Italy. protagonist · There is no clear protagonist.
Antonio is the merchant of the play’s title, but he plays a relatively passive role. Portia's "there is no power in Venice can alter a decree estab- lished" with the United States Constitution's "The President shall .
have power to grant reprieves and pardons." 4. The Merchant of Venice and the Sermon on the Mount as to the conflict between the old order — justice — and the new order — mercy. Conflicts in “Merchant of Venice” Essay Sample.
Conflicts in “Merchant of Venice” occur as a result of four major life themes: love, money, prejudice and disguise. Shylock, the Jewish moneylender is usually, and somewhat unjustly, held responsible for .
Conflict in `the Merchant of Venice' In Shakespeare's `a Merchant of Venice', conflict is a major theme that can be seen throughout the play in the main plot and every subplot.
It is evident on a personal level, such as between Shylock and Antonio or Shylock and Jessica, and on a larger scale, such as between the Jewish and Christian communities . Merchant Of Venice Internal External Conflicts The Scarlet Letter: Internal and External Conflicts In the novel, the Scarlet Letter, there are four main characters, Hester Prynne, Pearl Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger Prynne Chillingworth.