These programs face a student body with a wide range of language skills; from those with no knowledge of Spanish to those who are natively fluent in the language. In response to the increasing number of students who enter Spanish classes with some degree of heritage language skills, many programs across the nation have instituted what are commonly called Spanish for Native Speakers SNS courses. However, par- ticipation in such classes is generally not mandatory, and not all students who possess heritage language skills enroll in SNS programs, opting instead for classes designed for non-native speakers. This article, then, examines the relationship between self-identification labels and self-reported language use, among other factors, of students who have self-selected into SNS courses.
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For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Abstract Ethnic minority children, youth, and families are often burdened with negative social identities.
This is exacerbated by approaches to research and intervention that are based on erroneous descriptions, labeling, and categorization, which sustain and perpetuate inequalities for ethnic minorities.
For the new millennium, families must be understood and supported by approaches that offer constructive strategies for adaptation. An ecological approach can effectively guide research, outreach, and intervention — while avoiding categorizing, labeling, and focusing on negative social identifies.
The thesis of this paper is that the social identity formed by many of our ethnic minority children, youth, and families is the consequence of being identified as a member of a negatively defined social group.
Ethnicity is conceptualized as having a common origin, or culture, that is handed down from one generation to another. One's ethnic identity is based on a mixture of language, religion, race, and or ancestry Yinger, The concept of minority is a sociological term referring to dominance or power relationships.
Inequality and limited access become dimensions of social identity as members of ethnic minority groups are singled out, labeled, and treated unequally on the basis of their cultural or physical differences from the dominant group. Van Dijkfocusing on discourse analysis and understanding ethnic and racial inequality in society, has studied the ways majority group members write and talk about minorities in everyday conversations, textbooks, news reports, films, jokes, debates, and in academic and corporate discourse.
In his analysis see van Dijk,, he asked: Discourse analysis contributes to the understanding of what takes place at the micro level of social practices, involving the enactment and reproduction of intergroup relations and especially prejudice and ethnic stereotyping van Dijk, In the everyday discourse of activities, ethnic minority individuals are often reminded of their unequal status in society by textbooks read, news heard, conversations overheard, research findings reported, and a number of other sources of information.
To be a member of an ethnic minority group is to engage in battle with the forces of negative social identity. As it now stands, much of our knowledge about ethnic minority families is grounded in theories of structure and function, as described by Kingsbury and Scanzoni Families and society are interacting systems.
Families contribute members to society for the workforce. They socialize children and make them productive members of society. However, when families vary substantially from the realm of the familiar and acceptable norms as they make their contributions to society and interact with other systems, they are seen as dysfunctional systems.
Dysfunctional systems have negative social identities. Social science is quick to investigate that which is "deviant" or "dysfunctional" and make recommendations that are heavily intertwined with, and gain acceptability from, prevalent cultural stereotypes. Comparative studies of race and ethnicity can be questioned on methodological grounds.
According to Ragin and Heindata collected are often truncated and biased, giving the appearance of scholarship but having little methodological substance. The fundamental utility of this kind of research for ethnic minority groups is highly questionable.
According to Margersince the s, research on American ethnic minority families has focused its attention on relations among majority and ethnic minority groups, using a comparative or cross societal framework.
The poor and powerless were often compared with others more fortunate Billingsley, It is not very different today. For example, there is profuse interest in "at risk" conditions of ethnic minority children.
Social scientists have neglected to consider sufficiently the processes within specific contexts that shape social identity as members of ethnic minority groups. Social Identity Theory and Social Science Social identity theory can help to explain why perspectives often used in contemporary social science research adversely affect ethnic minority social identity.
Social identity theory, based to a significant extent on the work of Tajfelis useful for analysis of individual perspectives, intergroup relations, and group structure and process.
Social identity theory involves processes of categorization, labeling, and construction of stereotypical views. Within this framework, individuals are thought to identify with groups of which they perceive they are members and seek to construct a positive view of self, based on advantageous intergroup comparisons.
Subjectively favorable comparisons are motivated by the need to see the self positively compared to others. This proposition assumes that members of a group have a positive view of their own group and, therefore, seek in their social identity development to construct a positive view of self.
However, there is evidence to suggest that preference for one's own group differs between African American and white children Andereck, self-fulfilling prophecy might result when a person accepts the label and incorporates it into her or his self-conceptualization, with reduced performance expectations and damaged self-esteem as unfortunate byproducts (McGrew & .
The Social Context of Labeling Many “early writings” Lemert in s Tannenbaum in Emerged in the s as a force Social context of the s “Fit” with the theory Labeling theory = “ironic twist” Labeling as a mix of 3 perpectives Symbolic Interactionism Gestures/signs to communicate A single “label” can have many.
LABELING THEORY on labelers and those already labeled, there is virtually no substantiation of the assumption that a reconstitution of self occurs when one.
Effects of Labeling Students “Learning Disabled”: Emergent Themes in the Research Literature Through Karen Osterholm, PhD corps among congregations of people with disabilities” (p. ). The reader should be cognizant that informal labeling – as well as self-identification – might certainly impact the labeled.
Why labeling a person "black," "rich," or "smart" makes it so.
The results were astonishing among the The teachers fostered the intellectual development of the "bloomers," producing a self.
As personal contact with a person with mental illness is seen to decrease stigma both towards the behaviors and label of schizophrenia, we would expect contact to decrease stigma among the schizophrenia labeling conditions to a greater extent when compared with .