Review by Jeffrey G. A Naval History of Britain, Volume 1:
Broadly stated, strategy is the planning, coordination, and general direction of military operations to meet overall political and military objectives.
Tactics implement strategy by short-term decisions on the movement of troops and employment of weapons on the field of battle.
The great military theorist Carl von Clausewitz put it another way: The change in the meaning of these terms over time has been basically one of scope as the nature of war and society has changed and as technology has changed.
Strategy, for example, literally means "the art of the general" from the Greek strategos and originally signified the purely military planning of a campaign. Thus until the 17th and 18th centuries strategy included to varying degrees such problems as fortification, maneuver, and supply.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, however, with the rise of mass ideologies, vast conscript armies, global alliances, and rapid technological change, military strategy became difficult to distinguish from national policy or "grand strategy," that is, the proper planning and utilization of the entire resources of a society--military, technological, economic, and political.
The change in the scope and meaning of tactics over time has been largely due to enormous changes in technology. Tactics have always been difficult--and have become increasingly difficult--to distinguish in reality from strategy because the two are so interdependent.
Indeed, in the 20th century, tactics have been termed operational strategy. Strategy is limited by what tactics are possible; given the size, training, and morale of forces, type and number of weapons available, terrain, weather, and quality and location of enemy forces, the tactics to be used are dependent on strategic considerations.
Strategic and Tactical Principles of Warfare Military commanders and theorists throughout history have formulated what they considered to be the most important strategic and tactical principles of war. Napoleon I, for example, had such principles. The Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest had but one: Military forces, whether large-scale or small-scale, must have a clear objective that is followed despite possible distractions.
Only offensive operations--seizing and exploiting the initiative--however, will allow the choice of objectives; the offense also greatly increases the possibility of surprise stealth and deception and security protection against being surprised or losing the possibility of surprising the enemy.
Unity of command, or cooperation, is essential to the pursuit of objectives, the ability to use all forces effectively economy of forceand the concentration of superior force at a critical point mass.
Maneuver consists of the various ways in which troops can be deployed and moved to obtain offensive, mass, and surprise. A famous example that illustrates most of these principles occurred during World War II when the Allied forces eventually agreed on the objective of defeating Germany first with a direct offensive against the European continent.
Under a combined command headed by Gen. Eisenhower, they effectively massed their forces in England, deceived Germany regarding the point of invasion, collected intelligence on the disposition of German forces, and set the vast maneuver called Operation Overlord into motion. Unthinking rigid attention to a principle of war, however, can be unfortunate.
In the face of two Japanese naval forces, Adm.Satavahana Empire ( BC – AD ) Kuninda Kingdom ( BC – AD ) Mitra Dynasty (c. – c. 50 BC) Shunga Empire (–73 BC) Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Pris: kr. Inbunden, Skickas inom vardagar. Köp Essays in Naval History, from Medieval to Modern av N A M Rodger på benjaminpohle.com We are pleased to offer this list of full text of books and articles about medieval military history. We thank the authors and publishers for their permission in republishing this material.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, and the Protestant Reformation.
This is a compilation of readings and links I recommend in the study of strategy, warfare, and military history. Readings. Theory. Science, Strategy and War: The Strategic Theory of .
Essays in Naval History, from Medieval to Modern by N. A. M. Rodger, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.