Public radio and public television, which receive part of their revenues from the federal government through the Corporation for Public Broadcasting CPBrepresent a comparatively small share of the market. Private ownership ensures considerable, but not absolute, freedom from government oversight. It does raise questions, however, about how the mass media operate. Concentration in the mass media As a result of competition, increasing costs, and mergers, the number of newspapers in the United States has dropped sharply.
Direct experience is a toilsome, tough teacher. Fortunately, humans have evolved an advanced capacity for observational learning that enables them to expand their knowledge and competencies through the power of social modeling.
Much human learning relies on the models in one's immediate environment. However, a vast amount of knowledge about styles of thinking and behaving and the mores and structures of social systems is gained from the extensive modeling in the symbolic environment of the electronic mass media.
A major significance of symbolic modeling lies in its tremendous reach, speed, and multiplicative power. Unlike learning by doing, which requires shaping the actions of each individual laboriously through repeated consequences, in observational learning a single model can transmit new ways of thinking and behaving simultaneously to countless people in widely dispersed locales.
Electronic delivery systems feeding off telecommunications satellites are now rapidly diffusing new ideas, values, and styles of conduct worldwide.
Symbolic modeling can have diverse psychosocial effects. Such influences can serve as tutors, motivators, inhibitors, disinhibitors, social promoters, emotion arousers, and shapers of the public consciousness.
The determinants and mechanisms governing these many effects are addressed in some detail by Albert Bandura in Social Foundations of Thought and Action and by Ted Rosenthal in "Observational Learning Effects" Observational learning of behavioral and cognitive competencies is governed by four component subfunctions.
Attentional processes determine what people observe in the profusion of modeling influences and what information they extract from what they notice.
A second subfunction involves an active process of transforming the information conveyed by modeled events into rules and conceptions for memory representation.
In the third subfunction, symbolic conceptions are translated into appropriate courses of action. The fourth subfunction concerns motivational processes that determine whether people put into practice what they have learned. Modeling is not simply a process of response mimicry as commonly misbelieved.
Observers extract the rules underlying the modeled style of thinking and behaving, and those extracted rules enable the observers to generate new behaviors in that style that go beyond what they have seen or heard. Much of the research on media effects has centered on the effect of televised violence.
Exposure to televised violence has at least three distinct effects. It teaches aggressive styles of conduct. It also reduces restraints over aggressive conduct.
This occurs because violence is portrayed as a preferred solution to conflict that is often successful, and relatively clean. Superheroes are doing most of the killing.
When good triumphs over evil by violent means, such portrayals legitimize and glamorize violence.
In addition, heavy exposure to televised violence desensitizes and habituates people to human cruelty. With live global broadcasts of societal conflicts, televised modeling is becoming an influential vehicle for political and social change. In his analytic article "A Sociology of Modeling and the Politics of Empowerment"John Braith-waite provides evidence that the speed with which Eastern European rulers and regimes were toppled by collective action was greatly accelerated by televised modeling.
The tactic of mass action modeled successfully by East Germans was immediately adopted by those living under oppressive rule.
Perse stated that media effects researchers study "how to control, enhance, or mitigate the impact of the mass media on individuals and society". Lang stated media effects researchers study "what types of content, in what type . Critical Analysis of Cecilia von Feilitzen’s Media violence: four research perspectives Mass communication has always been a cause for debate. Over the years considerable resources have been used to establish the effects of this communication. It is understood that the mass media are a pervasive force in shaping the public's perceptions. This paper incorporates agenda-setting theory to explore whether and to .
Televised modeling of civic strife is a double-edged sword, however. Modeling of punitive countermeasures can also curb social change, as when the Chinese watched on Cable News Network CNN as the army broke down doors and arrested student activists following the Tiananmen Square massacre.
The actions of others can also serve as social prompts in activating, channeling, and supporting previously learned styles of behavior that are unencumbered by restraints. By social exemplification one can get people to behave altruistically, to volunteer their services, to delay or seek gratification, to show affection, to select certain foods and drinks, to choose certain kinds of apparel, to converse on particular topics, to be inquisitive or passive, to think creatively or conventionally, or to engage in other permissible courses of action.Critical Analysis of Cecilia von Feilitzen’s Media violence: four research perspectives Mass communication has always been a cause for debate.
Over the years considerable resources have been used to establish the effects of this communication.
A mass media effects researcher might choose an experiment approach if he or she has _____. A. a desire to get results that reflect some truth about a large population B. a desire to find out if two variables are related in some undetermined way. TRUE OR FALSE: The minimal-effects model of mass media research holds that the media reinforce existing behaviors and attitudes rather than change them.
TRUE The scientific study of mass media got started because of interest in __________. It is understood that the mass media are a pervasive force in shaping the public's perceptions. This paper incorporates agenda-setting theory to explore whether and to .
Concerns about the effects of media on consumers and the existence and extent of media bias go back to the s. Reporter and commentator Walter Lippmann noted that citizens have limited personal experience with government and the world and posited that the media, through their stories, place ideas in citizens’ minds.
Mass Media’s Limited Effects Theory. Mass Media is a primary dispenser of Propaganda and has an important role in influencing the public opinion.